Load testing on Acquia Cloud Enterprise
It is important to ensure that your application and its hosting platform can handle the traffic that you expect. Using load testing, you can evaluate your application's future performance under controlled circumstances. You may also want to perform load testing if you expect one of your applications to experience a surge in popularity for whatever reason.
This page describes how to prepare for and carry out load testing on Acquia Cloud Enterprise. Because Acquia Cloud Professional and Acquia Cloud Free websites rely on shared load balancing hardware that's being used by other customers, Acquia does not permit load or stress testing with these applications. For more information, see Testing for Acquia Cloud Professional and Acquia Cloud Free.
Even though you may have experience evaluating your application's performance using security and penetration testing or vulnerability scans, load testing can require a significant amount of additional preparation and resources. For information about Acquia Cloud Enterprise subscription and hardware requirements, see Load testing requirements.
Applications with more than 5% authenticated and non-cacheable traffic should have a load test that targets the most common use cases, and the same is true for websites that have a large amount of anonymous traffic or a significant number of editorial users. Ideally, you should perform load tests before the following events:
- Launching a new hardware configuration
- Launching a major change to an application's code (including a new theme, a mobile version of the application, or a new splash page)
- Initiating a major marketing campaign
Guidelines for load testing
To perform a load test in the safest and most effective manner, review the load testing requirements for your Acquia Cloud configuration, which are based on the following guidelines:
- Use only dedicated equipment for a load test
Acquia Cloud Enterprise customers can purchase dedicated equipment for testing. This includes the web stack, search farms, and load balancers. This prevents the extreme resource utilization generated by a load test from affecting other customers. Contact Acquia Support both to provision load test equipment and to schedule a load test. A load test is meaningful only if the test is run on a clone of the production stack. If there are no live applications on the Production environment, you can run tests directly on Production.
- Provide Acquia with at least five business days' notice before a load test
If temporary hardware is needed, Acquia will need more lead time to place the hardware. At a minimum, Acquia needs the date and time of the load test and the list of the individual originating IPs that will generate traffic. These IP addresses must be individual IP addresses, and can not be IP address ranges or CIDR blocks.
Before you start a load test
A load test is only effective if you are fully prepared for it. Use the following recommendations to help you prepare for your load test:
- Be sure that your application is ready - Be sure that Drupal is ready for a load test by addressing any issues flagged in Acquia Insight. Verify that the theme registry is not being rebuilt on every page load.
- Develop a test plan - A load test plan is an essential component of a successful load test. The time it takes to configure a robust and meaningful load test increases with the variables that affect performance for an application. A load test plan should take into account the following variables:
- How many applications will be tested? Are there multiple applications? Are there multiple docroots on the same server? Are you using multiple domains with Domain Access?
- How many customer roles will be tested? You may have multiple anonymous, comment-only users and editors.
- Are you testing multiple languages? Multilingual implementations often have big implications.
- What are the kinds of tasks each user role will be expected to accomplish?
- What is the workflow and what pages will be involved in navigating those tasks?
- Have you created a list of form submissions to be mimicked?
- Have you investigated your cache-clearing frequency? How does the application respond under load when caches clear or pages expire?
- Determine your test goals - If you don't have concrete goals, you won't be able to determine if a load test is successful. Here are some examples of goal sets for testing:
- Government website - 500 concurrent users "baseline test." Determine the system breakpoint by loading up to 500 concurrent users over 15 minutes and monitoring user and system metrics.
- Entertainment news website - This test was designed to identify any performance bottlenecks in the application. The goal was to ramp up to 1,000 users and confirm that the database bottleneck identified in the previous test was resolved.
- Political campaign - Analyze the application performance against the environment in the following scenarios: S01, S02, S03, S04 and S05 with 10,000 users and a 40-minute ramp.
- S01 - Web Browser (70% of load)
- S02 - Web Donate 1 (7.5% of load)
- S03 - Web Donate 2 (7.5% of load)
- S04 - Web Petition (7.5% of load)
- S05 - Web Register (7.5% of load)
- Retail chain - Analyze the application performance in the following scenarios: A, B, C, D, E, and F with 2,500 users and a 40-minute ramp. Use three different locations to generate the load: US East (Virginia), US West (Northern California), and London. Indicate that the user had a
local_storecookie set to a random store location when first entering the application. This is designed to mimic a user returning to the application after selecting a default store.
- Scenario A, Scenario A Cookie (30% of the load)
- Scenario B, Scenario B Cookie (30% of the load)
- Scenario C, Scenario C Cookie (20% of the load)
- Scenario D, Scenario D Cookie (1% of the load)
- Scenario E, Scenario E Cookie (8% of the load)
- Scenario F, Scenario F Cookie (11% of the load)
Load testing recommendations
Load testing is the responsibility of the customer. Customers can engage Acquia Professional Services for a performance audit, which is a week-long code examination that is geared specifically for performance and scalability. After your analysis has provided the items that could be adjusted to improve performance, you can also engage Professional Services to make those technical adjustments. If you have a Technical Account Manager (TAM), you can ask for suggestions on how to best test the application or for some post-testing analysis.
What Acquia needs to know
Before you begin testing, the Acquia Support team needs to know the following information:
- Exact start and end dates and times (including timezone) of the planned testing
- Individual originating IP addresses conducting the testing
- Expected methodologies and specific tools to be used in the process of the testing
- Contact information for any third party that is conducting the testing (if being done by a third party)
After you have collected the required information, contact Acquia Support to create a ticket, and include this information. Be sure to notify the Support team at least two business days in advance of your testing.
Acquia Support will engage other internal teams to prepare for your tests, as necessary.
You can outline and set up a testing suite on your own using freely available tools. For example, you can use a service like BlazeMeter (which allows up to 40 free tests) to configure your load test plan using JMeter.
You can test the JMeter plan locally (with looping off and only one user per scenario). If everything is working, fill in the desired number of users, enable forever looping, and upload the plan to BlazeMeter for testing.
When load testing with BlazeMeter, you will need to start one or more BlazeMeter servers depending on how much traffic you intend to receive (which will incur an additional cost from BlazeMeter). Roughly speaking, a test needs one BlazeMeter large server per 1MM (1 million page-views/month) expected traffic.